Category: edj

Kurdish language

Kurdish language

Kurdish language
Kurdmember of an ethnic and linguistic group living in the Taurus Mountains of southeastern Anatoliathe Zagros Mountains of western Iranportions of northern Iraqnortheastern Syriaand western Armeniaand other adjacent areas. The Kurds are thought to number from 25 million to 30 million, including communities in Armenia, GeorgiaKazakhstanLebanonSyria, and Europe, but sources for this information differ widely because of differing criteria of ethnicityreligion, and language; statistics may also be manipulated for political purposes. The traditional Kurdish way of life was nomadicrevolving around sheep and goat herding throughout the Mesopotamian plains and the highlands of Turkey and Iran. Most Kurds practiced only marginal agriculture. The enforcement of national boundaries beginning after World War I —18 impeded the seasonal migrations of the flocks, forcing most of the Kurds to abandon their traditional ways for village life and settled farming; others entered nontraditional employment. The prehistory of the Kurds is poorly known, but their ancestors seem to have inhabited the same upland region for millennia. Most Kurds are Sunni Muslims, and among them are many who practice Sufism and other mystical sects. Despite their long-standing occupation of a particular region of the world, the Kurds never achieved nation-state status. Their reputation for military prowess has made them much in demand as mercenaries in many armies. The sultan Saladinbest known to the Western world for exploits in the Crusadesepitomizes the Kurdish military reputation. The principal unit in traditional Kurdish society was the tribetypically led by a sheikh or an aga, whose rule was firm. Detribalization proceeded intermittently as Kurdish culture became urbanized and was nominally assimilated into several nations. In traditional Kurdish society, marriage was generally endogamous. In nonurban areas, practices such as arranged marriage and child marriage are common. Households typically consist of father, mother, and children. Polygamypermitted by Islamic lawis sometimes practiced, although in Turkey it is forbidden by civil law. Along with Kurdish men, Kurdish women—who traditionally have been more active in public life than Turkish, Araband Iranian women, especially in prerevolutionary Iran—have taken advantage of urban educational and employment opportunities. Kurdish nationalism came about through the conjunction of a variety of factors, including the British introduction of the concept of private property, the partition of regions of Kurdish settlement by modern neighbouring states, and the influence of British, U. These factors and others combined with the flowering of a nationalist movement among a very small minority of urban, intellectual Kurds. The first Kurdish newspaper appeared in and was published at intervals until It was revived at Istanbul in when the first Kurdish political club, with an affiliated cultural society, was also founded and again in Cairo during World War I. Thus the opportunity to unify the Kurds in a nation of their own was lost. Indeed, Kurdistan after the war was more fragmented than before, and various separatist movements arose among Kurdish groups. The Turkish government suppressed Kurdish political agitation in the eastern provinces and encouraged the migration of Kurds to the urbanized western portion of Turkey, thus diluting the concentration of Kurdish population in the uplands. Operating mainly from eastern Anatolia, PKK fighters engaged in guerrilla operations against government installations and perpetrated frequent acts of terrorism. Inunder pressure from the European Union in which Turkey sought membershipthe government legalized broadcasts and education in the Kurdish language. Peace talks and a cease-fire initiated in between Turkey and the PKK appeared promising at its outset, but talks faltered. In August Turkey launched an incursion into northwestern Syria and maintained an active military presence there in the years that followed, in part serving to prevent the Kurds in northeastern Syria from extending their reach westward. It began preparing to expand its mission into northeastern Syria in but held off from launching an offensive in anticipation of the withdrawal of U. Thereafter, the KDPI engaged in low-level hostilities with the Iranian government into the 21st century. Although the pressure for Kurds to assimilate was less intense in Iraq where the Kurdish language and culture have been freely practicedgovernment repression has been the most brutal. A failed peace accord with the Iraqi government led to another outbreak of fighting inbut an agreement between Iraq and Iran—which had been supporting Kurdish efforts—later that year led to a collapse of Kurdish resistance. Thousands of Kurds fled to Iran and Turkey.

Kurdish badini

Today, Microsoft Translator adds two Kurdish dialects, Northern and Central, to its list of text translation languages. Northern and Central Kurdish are available now, or will be available soon, in the Microsoft Translator appOffice, and Translator for Bing. You can also use Azure Cognitive Services Translator in your own applications, websites, and tools to add Northern and Central Kurdish text translation to or from more than 70 languages. You can view the list of languages available for speech recognition and speech synthesis on the Microsoft Translator website. Northern and Central Kurdish are the two most common forms of the Kurdish language. Northern Kurdish, also known as Kurmanji, is spoken in Turkey, Syria, northern Iraq, and northwest and northeast Iran by million Kurds. Northern and Central Kurdish are generally not mutually understandable. Here are some examples of words and phrases in the two Kurdish dialects. Learn more about the Northern and Central dialects of Kurdish on Bing. Translate real-time conversations, menus and street signs, websites, documents, and more using the Microsoft Translator app for Windows, iOS, Android, and the web. Learn more. Globalize your business and customer interactions with text and speech translation powered by Translator and Microsoft Speech service, both members of the Azure Cognitive Services family. Create a more inclusive classroom for both students and parents with live captioning and cross-language understanding. For more information on Microsoft Translator please visit microsoft. Microsoft Translator Blog. Image: Night view of the citadel of Erbil Today, Microsoft Translator adds two Kurdish dialects, Northern and Central, to its list of text translation languages. What you can do with Microsoft Translator At home Translate real-time conversations, menus and street signs, websites, documents, and more using the Microsoft Translator app for Windows, iOS, Android, and the web. Learn more At work Globalize your business and customer interactions with text and speech translation powered by Translator and Microsoft Speech service, both members of the Azure Cognitive Services family. Learn more In the classroom Create a more inclusive classroom for both students and parents with live captioning and cross-language understanding. Learn more For more information on Microsoft Translator please visit microsoft. Follow Microsoft Translator.

Kurdistan

Kurdish languagea West Iranian languageone of the Indo-Iranian languageschiefly spoken in Kurdistan. It ranks as the third largest Iranian language, after Persian and Pashtoand has numerous dialects. It is thought to be spoken by some 20—40 million people. There are three main dialect groups. It is usually written in a modified Perso-Arabic script, though Latin script is increasingly used. Southern Kurdish, also called Pehlewani, consists of a number of less-studied dialects. Kurdish language. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History. Britannica Quiz. Official Languages: Fact or Fiction? Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Kurd: The Kurdish language and traditional way of life. The Kurds are thought to number from 25 million to 30 million, including communities in Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Syria, and Europe, but sources for this…. Kurdish is the official language in the Kurdish Autonomous Region in the north. A number of other languages are spoken by smaller ethnic groups, including Turkish, Turkmen, Azerbaijanian, and Syriac. Persian, once commonly spoken, is now seldom…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. More About. Kurdistan Regional Government - The Kurdish language.

Kurmanji alphabet

Kurdish languagea West Iranian languageone of the Indo-Iranian languageschiefly spoken in Kurdistan. It ranks as the third largest Iranian language, after Persian and Pashtoand has numerous dialects. It is thought to be spoken by some 20—40 million people. There are three main dialect groups. It is usually written in a modified Perso-Arabic script, though Latin script is increasingly used. Southern Kurdish, also called Pehlewani, consists of a number of less-studied dialects. Kurdish language. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History. Britannica Quiz. The Middle East: Fact or Fiction? Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Kurd: The Kurdish language and traditional way of life. The Kurds are thought to number from 25 million to 30 million, including communities in Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Syria, and Europe, but sources for this…. Kurdish is the official language in the Kurdish Autonomous Region in the north. A number of other languages are spoken by smaller ethnic groups, including Turkish, Turkmen, Azerbaijanian, and Syriac. Persian, once commonly spoken, is now seldom….

Kurdish country

Selecting a language below will dynamically change the complete page content to that language. You have not selected any file s to download. A download manager is recommended for downloading multiple files. Would you like to install the Microsoft Download Manager? Generally, a download manager enables downloading of large files or multiples files in one session. Many web browsers, such as Internet Explorer 9, include a download manager. Stand-alone download managers also are available, including the Microsoft Download Manager. The Microsoft Download Manager solves these potential problems. It gives you the ability to download multiple files at one time and download large files quickly and reliably. It also allows you to suspend active downloads and resume downloads that have failed. Microsoft Download Manager is free and available for download now. Warning: This site requires the use of scripts, which your browser does not currently allow. See how to enable scripts. Choose the download you want. Select File File File Size languageinterfacepack-xku-arab-iq. Download Summary:. Total Size: 0. Back Next. Microsoft recommends you install a download manager. Microsoft Download Manager. Manage all your internet downloads with this easy-to-use manager. It features a simple interface with many customizable options:. Download multiple files at one time Download large files quickly and reliably Suspend active downloads and resume downloads that have failed. Yes, install Microsoft Download Manager recommended No, thanks. What happens if I don't install a download manager?

Kurmanji to english

Kurdish language
A separate group of non-Kurdish Northwestern Iranian languages, the Zaza—Gorani languagesare also spoken by several million ethnic Kurds. The majority of the Kurds speak Kurmanji. The classification of Laki as a sub-dialect of Southern Kurdish or as a fourth dialect of Kurdish is unsettled, [2] but the differences between Laki and other Southern Kurdish dialects are minimal. The literary output in Kurdish was mostly confined to poetry until the early 20th century, when more general literature became developed. Today, the two principal written Kurdish dialects are Kurmanji and Sorani. Sorani is, along with Arabicone of the two official languages of Iraq and is in political documents simply referred to as "Kurdish". The Kurdish languages belong to the Iranian branch of the Indo-European family. They are generally classified as Northwestern Iranian languages, or by some scholars as intermediate between Northwestern and Southwestern Iranian. Ludwig Paul concludes that Kurdish seems to be a Northwestern Iranian language in origin, [12] but acknowledges that it shares many traits with Southwestern Iranian languages like Persian, apparently due to longstanding and intense historical contacts. Windfuhr identified Kurdish dialects as Parthianalbeit with a Median substratum. Windfuhr and Frye assume an eastern origin for Kurdish and consider it as related to eastern and central Iranian dialects. The present state of knowledge about Kurdish allows, at least roughly, drawing the approximate borders of the areas where the main ethnic core of the speakers of the contemporary Kurdish dialects was formed. The most argued hypothesis on the localisation of the ethnic territory of the Kurds remains D. Mackenzie 's theory, proposed in the early s Mackenzie Developing the ideas of P. Tedesco and regarding the common phonetic isoglosses shared by Kurdish, Persianand BaluchiMackenzie concluded that the speakers of these three languages may once have been in closer contact. He has tried to reconstruct the alleged Persian-Kurdish-Baluchi linguistic unity presumably in the central parts of Iran. According to Mackenzie's theory, the Persians or Proto-Persians lived in the province of Fars in the southwest proceeding from the assumption that the Achaemenids spoke Persianthe Baluchis Proto-Baluchis lived in the central areas of Western Iran, and the Kurds Proto-Kurdsin the wording of G. Windfuhrlived either in northwestern Luristan or in the province of Isfahan. Kurdish is divided into three groups, where dialects from different groups are not mutually intelligible without acquired bilingualism. In historical evolution terms, Kurmanji is less modified than Sorani and Pehlewani in both phonetic and morphological structure. The Sorani group has been influenced by among other things its closer cultural proximity to the other languages spoken by Kurds in the region including the Gorani language in parts of Iranian Kurdistan and Iraqi Kurdistan. Philip G. Kreyenbroek, an expert writing insays: [29]. Since most Kurds have used the Roman script to write Kurmanji Sorani is normally written in an adapted form of the Arabic script Reasons for describing Kurmanji and Sorani as 'dialects' of one language are their common origin and the fact that this usage reflects the sense of ethnic identity and unity among the Kurds. From a linguistic or at least a grammatical point of view, however, Kurmanji and Sorani differ as much from each other as English and German, and it would seem appropriate to refer to them as languages.

Kurdish languages language family

The Kurdistan Region has agreed upon a standard for Central Kurdish, implemented in Unicode for computation purposes. Two additional alphabets, based on the Armenian alphabet and the Cyrillic scriptwere once used in the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. The Kurmanji dialect of the Kurdish language is written in an extended Latin alphabetconsisting of the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin Alphabet with 5 letters with diacriticsfor a total of 31 letters each having an uppercase and a lowercase form :. These three glyphs do not have the official status of letters, but serve to represent these sounds when they are indispensable to comprehension. Turkey does not recognize this alphabet. Using the letters Q, W, and X, which did not exist in the Turkish alphabet untilled to persecution in and see [2]p. Since Septembermany Kurds applied to the courts seeking to change their names to Kurdish ones written with these letters, but failed. The Turkish government finally legalized the letters Q, W, and X as part of the Turkish alphabet in Some scholars have suggested to add minor additions to Bedirxan's Hawar alphabet to make it more user-friendly. These scholars suggest this extended alphabet be called the Kurdish Latin alphabet. The Kurdish Latin alphabet consists of 35 letters in total. Central Kurdish Sorani is mainly written using a modified Arabic alphabet with 33 letters introduced by Sa'id Kaban Sedqi. Unlike the Arabic alphabetwhich is an abjadCentral Kurdish is almost a true alphabet in which vowels are mandatory, making the script easier to read. Central Kurdish does not have a complete representation of Kurimanji Kurdish sounds, as it lacks short i. It does show the two pharyngeal consonantsas well as a voiced velar fricativeused in Kurdish. A new sort order for the alphabet was recently proposed by the Kurdish Academy as the new standard, [6] all of which are letters accepted included in the Central Kurdish Unicode Keyboard: [7]. Note - The above sequences are read from right to left. For pronunciations see comparison table below. Kurds in Iraq and Iran use this alphabet. Central Kurdish has 8 vowels, whilst only 7 are represented by letters: [8]. Central Kurdish stipulates that syllables must be formed with at least one vowel, whilst a maximum of two vowels are permitted. A third system, used for the few Kurmanji-speaking Kurds in the former Soviet Unionespecially in Armenia, used a Cyrillic alphabetconsisting of 40 letters. In it was reformed and was replaced by the following alphabet: [11]. These include workability, cross dialectal usage, and a lack of International IT-based Standards and representation for Kurdish.

Sorani

Easy to use, good interface, accurate info. Keeps all my tracking numbers in a single place, it's so easy to. This is such a great app. My customers know where their order is in the transit process. Would never stop using this app. It enables my customers to track their shipments from my store and, thus, reduces the number of customer. AfterShip has been excellent so far. It makes it very easy for my customers to track their order, without having to go. Been using AfterShip for a couple years now and I love everything about these guys. The best software on the market for. Aftership is greatit lets order tracking so easy for our customers and all in one place. Our staff even use it to tra. What an amazing program. It has helped me to track all my orders and keep up with my customers. I can't imagine using an. AfterShip gives us the option to use a store branded tracking service. It supports a lot of couriers, it is affordable a. AfterShip system is the best for individuals who are moving along with small and large businesses. Amazing and very help. No guessing with this app. It keeps you in the know. AfterShip provides a consolidated view of all our orders and importantly filter by status. This concentrates our CS, cus. Very useful especially for your customers to track their shipments without having to email to us over and over again. AfterShip is a must-have Shopify app as a Shopify dropshipper. Wouldn't want to miss it. It was always a hassle getting on top of the tracking numbers and which car accessories order I had to check up on with. After ship is amazing. Easy to use, and offers excellent touchpoint with consumers to keep them automatically updated on. Have boosted the overall experience of shopping at my website. Customers appreciate knowing where the product they've sp. AfterShip is a great app. EPIC KURDISH HOSPITALITY \u0026 STREET FOOD IN SULY - SULEYMANIAH, IRAQI KURDISTAN

Categories: edj

Replies to “Kurdish language”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *